The history of Sweden began when the Northern polar ice cap started receding. The first traces of visiting humans is from ca 12000 BC.
Written sources about Sweden before 1000 AD are rare and short, usually written by outsiders, and not until the 14th century were there any longer historical texts produced in Sweden. Swedish history, in contrast with Pre-history, is thus usually taken to start in the 11th century, when the sources are common enough that they are possible to be contrasted with each other.
The modern Swedish state was formed over a long period of unification and consolidation. Historians have set different standards for when it can be considered complete (resulting in dates from the 6th to 16th century), but a somewhat unified country, with power concentrated to one monarchical dynasty. Some common laws were present from the second part of the second half of the 13th century. At this time, Sweden consisted of most of what is today the southern part of the country (except for Scania, Blekinge, Halland and Bohusl